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  1. Ensuring Vaccine Safety U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Vaccine Safety Monitoring. Accessed October 27. 2021 from https://www.cdc.gov/vaccinesafety/ensuringsafety/monitoring/index.html. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Vaccine Safety. Accessed October 27. 2021 from https://www.hhs.gov/immunization/basics/safety/index.html.
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  1. Zelaya, C., Dahlhammer, J., Lucas, J., and Connor E. “Chronic Pain and High-Impact Chronic Pain Among U.S. Adults, 2019.” National Center for Health Statistics Data Brief No. 390, November 2020, https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/products/databriefs/db390.htm; and Awsare, S., Havens, C., and Lippi, J. “Facing the Opioid Crisis: Practical, Effective Actions We Can Take.” Gastroenterology, May 2019; 156(6) https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30682346/.
  2. Drug Overdose Deaths. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/drugoverdose/deaths/index.html. (70,630 drug overdose deaths in a year / 365 days)
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  7. Kaiser Permanente internal data (analysis provided by Elizabeth Bentley and Andrew Vidaurreta based on data from Kaiser Permanente National Pharmacy Analytics), and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2020, December 07). U.S. Opioid Dispensing Rate Maps. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/drugoverdose/maps/rxrate-maps.html
  8. Cho, J., Spence, M., Niu, F., Hui, R., Gray, P., and Steinberg, S. “Risk of Overdose with Exposure to Prescription Opioids, Benzodiazepines, and Non-Benzodiadepine Sedative-Hypnotics in Adults: a Retrospective Cohort Study.” Journal of General Internal Medicine. March 2020; 35(3), https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7080944/.